The following table lists the IUPAC names assigned to simple continuous-chain alkanes from C-1 to C-10. A common "ane" suffix identifies these compounds as alkanes. Longer chain alkanes are well known, and their names may be found in many reference and text books. The names methane through decane should be memorized, since they constitute the root of many IUPAC names. Fortunately, common numerical prefixes are used in naming chains of five or more carbon atoms.
(ii) A uniform variation of this kind in a series of compounds is called homologous.
(iii) These formulas all fit the CnH2n+2 rule. This is also the highest possible H/C ratio for a stable hydrocarbon.
(iv) Since the H/C ratio in these compounds is at a maximum, we call them saturated (with hydrogen).
IUPAC Rules for Alkane Nomenclature
2. Identify and name groups attached to this chain.
3. Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest a substituent group.
4. Designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name.
5. Assemble the name, listing groups in alphabetical order.
The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, are not considered when alphabetizing
IUPAC Rules for Cycloalkane Nomenclature
2. If the alkyl sustituent is large and/or complex, the ring may be named as a substituent group on an alkane.
3. If two different substituents are present on the ring, they are listed in alphabetical order, and the first cited substituent is assigned to carbon #1. The numbering of ring carbons then continues in a direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) that affords the second substituent the lower possible location number.
4. If several substituents are present on the ring, they are listed in alphabetical order. Location numbers are assigned to the substituents so that one of them is at carbon #1 and the other locations have the lowest possible numbers, counting in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction.
5. The name is assembled, listing groups in alphabetical order and giving each group (if there are two or more) a location number. The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, are not considered when alphabetizing.
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