Conformational Isomers ;
Conformational isomers have the same molecular formula and group connectivity but a different spatial arrangement due to the rotation of a single bond.
Conformational isomers are one single compound and deal with the orientations within a molecule. The free rotation around a single bond accounts for the different conformations that can exist. An example is butane which can have the following conformations.
In each conformer (conformational isomer) the position of the two CH3 group are at different angles to on another if we look along the rotating central carbon-carbon bond. This is called the dihedral angle. Even though some of these conformers are more favoured than other for butane it cannot be isolated as one single isomer. In some cases, however, a molecule may exist in two conformers if rotation around the single bond is severely hindered or in compounds containing non-planar rings of atoms.
An isomer which is related to a central atom about which bonded groups may vary in their arrangement so that the molecules are not superimposable. To name a configurational isomer, draw a tetrahedral image so that the least complex attached group is in back of the plane of observation and move from the lowest complexity group remaining to the highest complexity group. If the direction is right, the species is rectus (R). If the direction is left, the species is sinister (S).
An isomer which is due to the rotatability of carbon-carbon single bonds (transitory). The anticonformational is the minimal electron repulsion configuration, while the gauche conformer is the maximum electron repulsion configuration.
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