an acid/base reaction ...protonation of the hydroxyl group of nitric acid...this provides a better laving group.....
loss of the leaving group ,a water molecule provides the nitronium ion .......
the electrophilic nitrinium ion react with the nucleophilic c=c of the arene........this is the rate determiig step....
water function as a base to remove the proton from the sp3 c baering the nitro group and eform the c=c ant the aromatic system..
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