In general, a water with a pH < 7 is considered acidic and with a pH > 7 is considered basic. The normal range for pH in surfacewater systems is 6.5 to 8.5 and for groundwater systems 6 to 8.5. Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of the water to resists a change in pH that would tend to make the water more acidic. The measurement of alkalinity and pH is needed to determine the corrosivity of the water.
The pH of pure water (H20) is 7 at 25oC, but when exposed to the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere this equilibrium results in a pH of approximately 5.2. Because of the association of pH with atmospheric gases and temperature, it is strongly recommended that the water be tested as soon as possible. The pH of the water is not a measure of the strength of the acidic or basic solution and alone does not provide a full picture of the characteristics or limitations with the water supply.
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