delta S ,i.e. change in entropy or randomness...you must know that entropy in gases is more than liquids and in liquids is more than gases....if on both sides reactants and products are in same state consider delta S +ve i.e increasing entropy on that side which has more no. of gaseoues products......
in a) CaO(s) + CO2(g) ---> CaCO3(s) therefore delta S is -ve
in b) NaCl(aq) ---> NaCl(s) therefore delta S is -ve
in c) NaNO3(s) ---> Na+ + NO3- therefore delta S is +ve (since ions are free to move therefore randomness increasing)
in d) N2(g) + 3H2(g) ---> 2NH3(g) therefore delta S is -ve (since no. of moles on product side is lesser)....
PLS RATE IF SATISFIED......
IN third equation ions are forming thereby increasing the randomness hence delta s will be +ve
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