Electrolytic Conductor: Which conducts electricity by undergoing decomposition where current is passed through them.
Factors affecting electrolyte conduction:
(1) Interionic attractions: depends on solute-solute interactions.
(2) Solvation of ions: depends on solute-solvent interactions.
(3) Viscosity solvent: depends upon solvent-solvent interactions.
Note: Electrolytic conduction with in temp.
Dumb Question: Why electrolyticconduction with in temp ?
Ans: On increasing Temp., dissociation . So, conduction .
(4) Conc. of sol.: Higher conc. of sol., lessa is conduction. b/c if weak electrolyte, ionization is less & if strong electrolyte.
higher interaction at higher cond.
with dilution, conduction .
Conduction: Reciprocal of electrical resistance.
C = or a =
It unit is siemen (S) or ohm-1
R = specific resistance.
Reciprocal of Resistivity c/d specific conductivity.
It is denoted by K
R = & =
R = i =
| K = c x |
: Specific conductivity (K) ==
-1cm-1 or -1cm-1 or cm-1
1 S cm-1= 100 Sm-1
: Conductance of all the ions produced from one gram equivalent of electrolyte dissolved in V cm3
of sol. When distance b/w electrodes is 1 cm, & ares of electrode is so large that whole of sol. is contained b/w them. It is represented byeq
RElationship b/w equivalent conductivity & specific conducvity
If vol. of sol. containing 1 gm equivalent of electrolyte is V cm3.Eq. conductivity = Specific conductive x V
| eq = Kv x V |
If conc. of sol. is c gm equivalent per litre, then,
1 gm eq. will be
: Why Ceq= Normality ?
Ans: B/C normality is no. of gm. eq. of solute in 1 L of solution.
eq= K x
| eq = -1 cm2 eq-1 |
: Conductance of all ions produced from 1 mole of electrolyte dissolved in V cm3
of sol. when electrodes are 1 cm apart & area of electrodes is so large that whole of sol. is contained b/w them. IT is represented by
m. m= Kvx v
: ohm-1cm-1x= ohm-1cm2mol-1
K = c x
| Specific conductivity = conductance x |
: A potential difference of 20V applied to ends of a column of
sol., 4 cm in dia & 12 cm in length give current of 0.2 A. Calculate specific & molar conductance of solution.
Ans: By Ohm's law,
Resistance of sol. (R) =
Area of x-section of column (a) =r2= ... x (2)2cm2= 12.57 cm2
Length of column (distance b/w electrode), l = 12 cm
Conductivity (K) = c x
= 9.55 x 10
Molar conductivity (m) =
= 95.5 S cm2
Electrolytic conduction, eq. conductivity & molar conductivity
with dilution whereas specific conductivity of electrolytic sol.
: Why this happen ?
Ans: Conductivity of sol. is to presence of ions in sol. Greater no. of ions, greater is conductance. As on dilution, more ions are produced in sol. So, conductance should
with dilution b/c no. of current carrying particles i.e. ions present per cm
ofsolution becomes less and less on dilution.
Conductance Behaviour of Strong electrolytes
Molar conducting of strong electrolytes is found to vary as.
Molar conductivity at infinite dilution.
Molar conductivity at any conc.
This eq. hold goods at 1000 conc.
: (1) At higher conc., greater inter-ionic attractions retaral motion of ions & so, conductance falls with increasing concentrations.
(2) With dilution interionic attractions
due to which conductance
with dilution & max. at infinite dilution.