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Goa CET

# Physics Syllabus in GOA Common Entrance Test:

Chapter I: Electric Charges and Fields

Charges and their basic properties. Conductors and insulators. Coulomb's law - force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle . Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Continuous charge distribution

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter II: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Electrostatics of conductors. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
Chapter III: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; temperature dependence of resistance, electrical energy and power, series and parallel combinations of resistors;.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell. Cells in series and parallel Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer - principle and applications to measure potential difference, for comparing emf of two cells and measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Chapter IV: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors - definition of ampere. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.. Torque on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer - its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter V: Magnetism and Matter

Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis magnetic as an analogue of electrostatic field. Magnetic field lines;

Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Chapter VI: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Motional emf; Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. AC generator

Chapter VII: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current /voltage; AC applied to Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor, reactance and impedance;, LCR series circuit (Phasor Diagram solution), Resonance; Power in AC circuits, wattless current. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Transformer.
Chapter VIII: Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Chapter IX: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light - blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter X: Wave Optics

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens' principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens' principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe align, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, align of central maximum. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

Chapter XI: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Photoelectric effect, Einstein's photoelectric equation - particle nature of light.

Matter waves - wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Chapter XII: Atoms

Alpha - particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Electron Orbits, Atomic spectra, Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter XIII:Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; Radioactivity - alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. nuclear fission and nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Chapter XIV: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Unit XV: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandalign of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandalign of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation Prescribed textbooks (Published by Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Porvorim)

1. Physics Part-I Textbook for Class XII

2. Physics Part-II Textbook for Class XII

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