KEAM

Biology Syllabus-2

Engineering Entrance , KEAM (Engg)

Biology Syllabus Kerala Engineering Architecture Medical (KEAM)

 

UNIT 13 - APPLIED GENETICS


1. Recombinant DNA technology
1.1 Genetic Engineering and its tools
1.1 gene transfer
1.1.2 application of recombinant DNA technology
1.1.3 Gene Library
1.1.4 Medical Diagnosis of diseases.
2. Cloning
2.1 various types of cloning
2.1.1 Microbial cloning
2.1.2 Cell cloning
2.1.3 Plant cloning.
2.1.4 Animal cloning
2.1.5 transgenic organisms (Plant, animals and microbes)
3. Genomics
3.1 Principles and application
3.1.1 Human genome project
3.1.2 DNA Diagnosis
3.1.3 Gene Therapy
3.1.4 DNA finger printing
3.1.5 ethical, legal, social concerns associated with gene manipulations.

UNIT 14 - PHYSIOLOGY OF ANIMALS
1. Nutrition
1.1.1 Different types of nutrition
1.1.2. Different types of nutrients
1.1.3. Malnutrition
1.1. 4. Under nutrition
1.1. 5. Disorders related to nutrition.
2. Digestion
2.1.1. Intracellular and Extracellular digestion with examples.
2.1.2. Digestive system of Cockroach.
2.1.3. Glands associated with the alimentary canal.
2.1.4. Different enzymes secreted by the alimentary canal.
2.1.5. Bacteria involved in the synthesis of enzymes.
2.1.6. Functions of various enzymes.
2.1.7. Role of various regions of alimentary canal in absorption.
2.2. Human Digestive System.
2.2.1. Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands and their secretions.
2.2.2. Buccal cavity and structures associated with it.
2.2.3. Process of ingestion and digestion at various regions of alimentary tract.
2.2.4. Mechanism of absorption and assimilation of digested food components.
2.2.5. Egestion
2.2.6. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in digestion.
3. Respiration
3.1.1. Aerobic Respiration
3.1.2. Anaerobic respiration.
3.2 Respiration in cockroach.
3.2.1. Spiracles and tracheal system
3.2.2 Haemocoel
3.2.3 Mechanism of gas exchange.
3.3 Human Respiratory system.
3.3.1. Respiratory organs and mechanism involved in pulmonary respiration.
3.3.2. Gas exchange and transport of respiratory gases.
3.3.3 Respiratory pigments involved
3.3.4 Regulation of respiration
3.4 Respiratory disorders
3.4.1 Bronchitis
3.4.2 Bronchial Asthma
3.4.3 Emphysema
3.4.4 Pneumonia
3.4.5 Occupational lung diseases
3.4.6 Causes of these disorders - symptoms, prevention and cure of these disorders
3.4.7 High altitude problems - mountain sickness, asphyxia and hypoxia
3.5 Carbon Monoxide poisoning.
4. Circulation
4.1.1 Open circulatory system with examples
4.1.2 Closed circulatory system with examples
4.1.3 composition of blood
4.1.4 structure and functions of different types of blood cells.
4.2 Structure and working of heart
4.2.1 pulmonary, systemic and portal circulation
4.2.2 Pulse, heart beat and blood pressure
4.2.3 Rhythmicity of heart
4.2.4 Regulation of heart beat
4.2.5 Blood related disorders - hypertension, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
4.2.6 Echo cardio gram
4.2.7 Pacemaker
4.3 Lymphatic system
4.3.1 Lymph
4.3.2 Lymph node
4.3.3 Lymph vessels
4.3.4 functions of lymph
4.3.5 Lymphoid organs.
4.4 Immunity and immune systems
4.4.1 Immunology
4.4.2 Innate (Non- specific)
4.4.3 Acquired immunity
4.4.4 Active immunity
4.4.5 Passive immunity
4.4.6 Cell mediated immunity
4.4.7 Antibody mediated immunity
4.5 Clonal Selection and Primary and Secondary immune responses
4.6 Immune disorders
4.7 Vaccinisation and Immunization (using traditional vaccines and recent technological vaccines).
5. Excretion.
5.1.1 Definition.
5.1.2 Different types of excretory organs in animals.
5.1.3 Skin, lungs and liver as excretory organs.
5.2 Nitrogenous excretion
5.2.1 Different types of Nitrogenous excretion with examples.
5.2.2. Ammenotelism, ureotelism and uricotelism.
5.3 Excretory system in Cockroch.
5.3.1 Excretory organs-Malphigian tubules and rectum.
5.3.2. Role of Malphigian tubules and rectum in excretion and osmoregulation.
5.4.Excretory system in man .
5.4.1 Structure of kidney
5.4.2 Composition and formation of urine
5.4.3 Role of Kidney in osmoregulation
5.4.4 Hormonal regulation of excretory system.
5.4.5 Dialysis.
6. Locomotion and Movement.
6.1.1 Different modes of movement with examples
6.2.1 Human skeleton
6.2.2 Axial and appendicular skeleton.
6.3 Joints
6.3.1 Types of joints with examples
6.4 Bone and cartilage
6.4.1 Structure of Bone and Cartilage
6.4.2 Disordres of bone and cartilage (Arthritis and Osteoporoosis)
7. Muscles.
7.1.1 Different types of muscles
7.1.2 Structure of skeletal muscle
7.1.3 Mechanism of muscle contraction
7.1.4 Role of red and white muscles in movement.
7.1.5 Role of muscles and bones in movement.
58 KEAM-2008, © CEE, TVM
59 KEAM-2008, © CEE, TVM
8. Nervous Co-ordination
8.1 Nervous system in cockroach
8.1.1 Morphology of nervous system in cockroach
8.2. Human nervous system
8.2.1 Morphology of functional subsystems of nervous system.
8.2.2 Different types of nerve cells.
8.3 Structure and functions of brain and spinal cord.
8.4 Nerve impulse.
8.4.1 Synapse
8.4.2 Transmission and conduction of nerve impulse
8.5 Reflex action.
8.5.1 Reflex arc
8.6. Sensory receptors.
8.6.1 Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin.
9. Hormones
9.1 Different types of hormones
9.2 Hormones produced by human endocrine glands and their functions.
9.3 Hormone imbalance and disorders
9.4 Role of hormones as messengers and regulators.
9.5 Feed back control of various hormones.

UNIT 15 - REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN ANIMALS
1. Reproduction
1.1 Asxual Reproduction.
1.1.1 Different types of asxual reproduction with examples
1.1.2 Sxual reproduction
1.2.1Conjugation,hermaphroditismand parthenogenesis with examples.
1.3 Reproductive organs.
1.3.1 Structure and function of human male and female reproductive system.
1.3.2 Reproductive cycle in human female
1.3.3 Gametogenesis
1.3.4 fertilization (Physical and chemical events)
1.3.5 Development of zygote up to 3 germinal layers and their derivatives.
1.4 Extra embryonic membranes.
1.4.1 Structure and functions of placenta
1.5. Growth
1.5.1 Definition
1.5.2 Embryonic, post embryonic and cellular growth.
1.5.3 Types of growth and growth curve
1.5.4. Hormonal control of growth.
1.6 Ageing:
1.6.1 Definition.
1.6.2 Life span and life expectancy
1.6.3. Ageing of human organs.
1.6.4 Process of ageing and theories related to ageing
1.6.5. Ageing and death.
1.7 Regeneration
1.7.1 Definition
1.7.2 Regeneration among animals
1.7.3 Types of regeneration.
1.7.4 Factors controlling amphibian limb regeneration.

UNIT 16 -BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
1. Biotic resources.
1.1 Terrestrial biotic resources.
1.1.1 forests
1.1.2 Grassland
1.1.3 wild life
1.1.4. Domesticated animals.
1.2 Aquatic biotic resources.
1.2.1 Marine biotic resources (animal resources)
1.2.2 fresh water biotic resources.
2. Biodiversity
2.1.1 Definition
2.1.2 Significance of biodiversity
2.1.3 Magnitude of biodiversity
2.1.4 Levels of biodiversity
2.1.5 gradients of biodiversity
2.1.6 Uses of biodiversity
2.1.7 Threats of biodiversity.
3. Endangered species
3.1.1 Extinction
3.1.2 Causes of extinction.
4. Conservation of biodiversity
4.1.1 Biosphere reserves
4.1.2 protected ares
4.1.3 National and international efforts
4.1.4 Role of Government and non-government organizations in conservation of bio-diversity
4.1.5 Environmental ethics
4.1.6 Legislation to conserve biodiversity
4.1.7 Responsibility of individual in biodiversity conservation.

UNIT 17 - BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE
1. Population.
1.1.1 Role of environment in population
1.1.2 Role of development in population.
2. Population Growth.
2.1.1 Characteristics of population growth
2.1.2 Factors affecting population growth - Natality, Mortality, Immigration, Age and Sx ratio
2.1.3 Impact of Population growth.
3. Common problems of adolescence
3.1.1 Social and moral implications
3.1.2 Problems associated with drugs, smoking and alcoholism.
4. Population as a resource.
4.1.1 Generation of useful products and services- Intellectual, social, economic and political resources.
4.1.2 Conservation of existing resources.
5. Organ transplantation.
5.1.1. Transplantation of Skin, Kidney, Heart, Liver, Lungs, Cornea, Bone marrow, Blood and Pancreas
6. Modern techniques in disease diagnosis.
6.1 AIDS and SCID.
6.1.1 Causes
6.1.2 Diagnosis-ELISA, WESTERN BLOT
6.1.3 Treatment.
6.2.1 STD -different types of STD
6.2.2. Causative agents
6.2.3 Diagnosis-Microscopic examination, Gram-staining of discharge, antigen/antibody detection, Culture, DNA hybridization, PCR
6.2.4 Treatment
6.3 Cancer
6.3.1 Types of Cancer
6.3.2 Various causes.
6.3.3 Diagnosis-Blood test, Histopathology, CT Scan, MRI Scan, X-ray (using injected dyes)
6.3.4 Treatment.
7. Biotechnology.
7.1.1. Hormones produced using biotechnology.
7.2. Hormone therapy
7.2.1 Hormone blocking and hormone -Supplementing therapy.
8. Interferon.
8.1.1. Definition
8.1.2. Different types of interferon
8.1.3. Role of interferon in medical treatment
9. Immuno modulations.
9.1. Immunomodulators - different approaches.

 

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