Chemistry Syllabus 3
Engineering Entrance , ICFAI ATIT
ICFAI Institute of Science and Technology Chemistry Syllabus:
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer concept. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (NERNST equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation number (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number, nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Electrolytic conduction. Molar conductivity, Kohlrausch's Law and its applications, Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb's energy change and cell potential. Electrode potential and products of electrolysis, Fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention.
Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions - factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalyst. Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions?
Rate law expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant - Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Surfaces : Adsorption - Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption isotherms Colloids - Preparation and general properties, Emulsions, Micelles Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst, Enzymes, Zeolites
Chemical Families - Periodic Properties
Modern periodic law, Types of elements - Representative elements (s & p block), Transition elements -d-block elements, inner transition elements - f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties - ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure, shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond, hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds.
Coordinate covalent bond, ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Molecules: Molecular orbital. Theory - bond order and magnetic properties of H2, O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals (including shapes of simple organic molecules), Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
Chemistry of Non-Metals - I
Hydrogen ( unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses), Hydrides - molecular, soline and interstitial Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses), simple oxides; ozone. Water and hydrogen peroxide, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide - preparation, properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen - Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen - Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid - preparation, properties and uses.
Chemistry of Non-Metals - II
Boron - occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds. Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon - oxides, halides, carbides, elemental carbon. Silicon - occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertililzers. Sulphur - occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid - preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate. Halogens - occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens. Noble gases - discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses.
Chemistry of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium - occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds - NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI, KOH. Magnesium and calcium - occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4, plaster of paris , Bleaching Powder. Aluminium - occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds - AlCl3, alums. Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Iron - Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper and silver - occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds - sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography. Zinc and Mercury -occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds -oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates Tin and Lead- occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds - oxides, sulphides, halides.
Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties - Trends in groups and periods (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates - solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:- Group 1 elements - Alkali metals Group 2 elements - Alkaline earth metals Group 13 elements - Boron family Group 14 elements - Carbon family Group 15 elements - Nitrogen family Group 16 elements - Oxygen family Group 17 elements - Halogen family Group 18 elements - Noble gases and Hydrogen
Transition Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Groupwise discussion). Preparation and reactions, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate and Potassium permanganate.
Inner Transition Elements
General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and lanthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics
Coordination compounds, Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner's coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.
Nature of radiations from radioactive substances. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating.
Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography). Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis - estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus (basic principles only) Determination of molecular mass - Silver salt method, cholroplatinate salt method , Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
Some Basic Principles
Classification of Organic Compounds. Tetravalency of Carbon. Homologous series. Functional groups- -C = C -, - C C -, and groups containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. General introduction to naming organic compounds - Common names and IUPAC nomenclature of alphatic, aromatic and Cyclic Compounds. Illustration with examples of Compounds having not more than three same or different functional groups/atoms. Isomerism - Structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical). Chirality - Isomerism in Compounds having one and two chiral Centres. Enantiomers, diastereoisomers, racemic forms, racemisation & resolution. Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and Heterolytic : free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles. Electron displacement in a covalent bond - inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance. Common types of organic reactions - Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Illustrations with examples.
Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons: Alkanes - General methods of preparation (from unsatmated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes, ketones and carburoxylic acids). Physical properties and reactions (Substitution, oxidation and miscellaneous). Conformations of alkanes(ethane, popane butane) and cyclohexane, sawhorse and Newman projections)-mechanism of halogaration of alkanes. Alkanes and Alkynes - General methods of preparation physical properties, Chemical reactions - Mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes - Markowni Koff's Rule, peroxide effect. Acidic character of alkynes. Polymerisation of alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons - Benzene and its homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of bonzene. Structure of bonzene, resonance. Directive influence of substituents. Petroleum - HydroCarbons from Petroleum, Cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline - Octane number, gasoline additives.
Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
(Haloalkanes and Haloarenes), Methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions, Preparation, properties and uses of Chloroform and Iodoform,
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid – their important methods of preparation and reactions. Acidity of carboxylic acids and phenol effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen: (Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)
Nomenclature and classification of amines, cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their methods of preparation; correlation of their physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses – Basicity of amines
Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following : Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene, Bakelite
Bio Molecules and Biological Processes
The Cell and Energy Cycle, Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Amino acids and Peptides – Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA, Biological functions of Nucleic acids – Protein synthesis and replication, Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry in Action
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines (antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilisers), Rocket propellants. (Structural formulae non-evaluative)
Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, Ozone and its reactions causing ozone layer depletion, effects of the depletion of ozone layer, industrial air pollution.
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